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|Título :||The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. Variability of the He I line at 10 830 Å|
|Autor :||Fihrmeister, B.|
Schmitt, H. M. M.
Jeffers, S. V.
Caballero, J. A.
Johnson, E. N.
Amado, P. J.
Bauer, F. F.
Béjar, V. J. S.
Cortés Contreras, M.
Galadí Enríquez, D.
Hatzes, A. P.
|Fecha de publicación :||10-ago-2020|
|Editorial :||EDP Sciences|
|Versión del Editor:||https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2020/08/aa38279-20/aa38279-20.html|
|Citación :||Astronomy & Astrophysics 640: A52 (2020)|
|Resumen :||The He I infrared (IR) triplet at 10 830 Å is known as an activity indicator in solar-type stars and has become a primary diagnostic in exoplanetary transmission spectroscopy. He I IR lines are a tracer of the stellar extreme-ultraviolet irradiation from the transition region and corona. We study the variability of the He I triplet lines in a spectral time series of 319 M dwarf stars that was obtained with the CARMENES high-resolution optical and near-infrared spectrograph at Calar Alto. We detect He I IR line variability in 18% of our sample stars, all of which show Hα in emission. Therefore, we find detectable He I variability in 78% of the sub-sample of stars with Hα emission. Detectable variability is strongly concentrated in the latest spectral sub-types, where the He I lines during quiescence are typically weak. The fraction of stars with detectable He I variation remains lower than 10% for stars earlier than M3.0 V, while it exceeds 30% for the later spectral sub-types. Flares are accompanied by particularly pronounced line variations, including strongly broadened lines with red and blue asymmetries. However, we also find evidence for enhanced He I absorption, which is potentially associated with increased high-energy irradiation levels at flare onset. Generally, He I and Hα line variations tend to be correlated, with Hα being the most sensitive indicator in terms of pseudo-equivalent width variation. This makes the He I triplet a favourable target for planetary transmission spectroscopy. © 2020 ESO.|
|Descripción :||B.F. acknowledges funding by the DFG under Schm 1032/69-1. CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronomico Hispano-Aleman de Calar Alto (CAHA, Almeria, Spain). CARMENES is funded by the German Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), the European Union through FEDER/ERF FICTS-2011-02 funds, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Landessternwarte Konigstuhl, Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai, Institut fur Astrophysik Gottingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thuringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiologia and Centro Astronomico Hispano-Aleman), with additional contributions by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, the German Science Foundation through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and DFG Research Unit FOR2544 "Blue Planets around Red Stars", the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Wurttemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucia.|
|Aparece en las colecciones:||(CAB) Artículos|
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|aa38279-20.pdf||1,4 MB||Adobe PDF|
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