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dc.rights.licenseCopyright © 2019, Oxford University Press-
dc.contributor.authorManjavacas, E.-
dc.contributor.authorLodieu, N.-
dc.contributor.authorBéjar, V. J. S.-
dc.contributor.authorZapatero Osorio, M. R.-
dc.contributor.authorBoudreault, S.-
dc.contributor.authorBonnefoy, M.-
dc.identifier.citationMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 491(4): 5925–5950(2020)es
dc.description.abstractIn recent years, some extremely red brown dwarfs have been discovered. They were believed to have a low surface gravity, but many of their spectral characteristics are similar to those of high-surface-gravity brown dwarfs, showing that the spectral characteristics of young brown dwarfs are poorly understood. We aim to test surface-gravity indicators in late-M and early-L brown dwarf spectra using data obtained with the X-shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. We select a benchmark sample of brown dwarf members of Chamaeleon I (∼2 Myr), Upper Scorpius (5−10 Myr), the Pleiades (132 ± 27 Myr) and Praesepe (590−790 Myr) with well-constrained ages and similar metallicities. We provide a consistent spectral classification of the sample in the optical and in the near-infrared. We measure the equivalent widths of their alkali lines, finding that they have a moderate correlation with age, especially for objects with spectral types M8 and later. We use spectral indices defined in the literature to estimate surface gravity, finding that their gravity assignment is accurate for 75 per cent of our sample. We investigate the correlation between red colour and age, finding that after ∼10 Myr, the colour does not change significantly for our sample with spectral types M6.0–L3.0. In this case, the red colours might be associated with circumstellar discs, ring structures, extinction, or viewing angle. Finally, we calculate the bolometric luminosity, and J and K bolometric corrections for our sample. We find that six objects are overluminous compared with other members of the same association. These objects are flagged as binary candidates by the Gaia
dc.description.sponsorshipThis publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation The work is based on observations (programme GTC66-12B) made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), operated on the island of La Palma in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrof ' isica de Canarias, and with observations collected at the EU Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programmes 098.C0277(A), 0.93.C-0109(A), and 0.95.C-0812(A), 0.93.C-0769(A) and 0.95.C-0378(A). It has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, ht tps:// for the DPAC was provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. NL and VJSB are supported by programme AYA2015-69350C3-2-P, and MRZO by programme AYA2016-79425-C3-2-P from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO). Based on observations of VLT/XSHOOTER, under the program ID
dc.publisherOxford Academics: Oxford University Presses
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MINECO//AYA2015-69350-C3-2-P/ES/ORIGEN Y EVOLUCION DE LAS ENANAS MARRONES Y PLANETAS GIGANTES/-
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/AEI/Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2013-2016/AYA2016-79425-C3-2-P/ES/ENANAS MARRONES Y PLANETAS AISLADOS Y COMO COMPAÑEROS DE ESTRELLAS/-
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.subjectBrown dwarfses
dc.subjectStars: fundamental parameterses
dc.titleSpectral library of age-benchmark low-mass stars and brown dwarfses
dc.contributor.orcidManjavacas, E. [0000-0003-0192-6887]-
dc.contributor.orcidZapatero Osorio, M. R. [0000-0001-5664-2852]-
dc.contributor.funderMinisterio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO)-
dc.contributor.funderAgencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI)-
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer reviewes
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