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dc.rights.license© ESO 2020-
dc.contributor.authorBellocchi, E.-
dc.contributor.authorMartín Pintado, J.-
dc.contributor.authorGüsten, R.-
dc.contributor.authorRequeña Torres, M. A.-
dc.contributor.authorHarris, A.-
dc.contributor.authorVan der Werf, P. P.-
dc.contributor.authorIsrael, F. P.-
dc.contributor.authorWeiss, A.-
dc.contributor.authorKramer, C.-
dc.contributor.authorGarcía Burillo, S.-
dc.contributor.authorStutzki, J.-
dc.contributor.otherUnidad de Excelencia Científica María de Maeztu Centro de Astrobiología del Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial y CSIC, MDM-2017-0737-
dc.identifier.citationAstronomy and Astrophysics 642: A166(2020)es
dc.descriptionThe reduced spectra and maps are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via Observations based on Herschel and the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) data. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. APEX is a collaboration between the Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space
dc.description.abstractContext. Understanding the dominant heating mechanism in the nuclei of galaxies is crucial to understanding star formation in starbursts (SBs), active galactic nuclei (AGN) phenomena, and the relationship between star formation and AGN activity in galaxies. Analysis of the carbon monoxide (12CO) rotational ladder versus the infrared continuum emission (hereafter, 12CO/IR) in galaxies with different types of activity reveals important differences between them. Aims. We aim to carry out a comprehensive study of the nearby composite AGN-SB galaxy, NGC 4945, using spectroscopic and photometric data from the Herschel satellite. In particular, we want to characterize the thermal structure in this galaxy using a multi-transition analysis of the spatial distribution of the 12CO emission at different spatial scales. We also want to establish the dominant heating mechanism at work in the inner region of this object at smaller spatial scales (≲200 pc). Methods. We present far-infrared (FIR) and sub-millimeter (sub-mm) 12CO line maps and single spectra (from Jup = 3 to 20) using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI), the Photoconductor Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS), and the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) onboard Herschel, and the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX). We combined the 12CO/IR flux ratios and the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the 12CO images to derive the thermal structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) for spatial scales raging from ≲200 pc to 2 kpc. In addition, we also present single spectra of low- (12CO, 13CO and [CI]) and high-density (HCN, HNC, HCO+, CS and CH) molecular gas tracers obtained with APEX and HIFI applying LTE and non-LTE (NLTE) analyses. Furthermore, the spectral energy distribution of the continuum emission from the FIR to sub-mm wavelengths is also presented. Results. From the NLTE analysis of the low- and high-density tracers, we derive gas volume densities (103–106 cm−3) for NGC 4945 that are similar to those found in other galaxies with different types of activity. From the 12CO analysis we find a clear trend in the distribution of the derived temperatures and the 12CO/IR ratios. It is remarkable that at intermediate scales (360 pc–1 kpc, or 19″–57″) we see large temperatures in the direction of the X-ray outflow while at smaller scales (≲200 pc–360 pc, or ∼9″–19″), the highest temperature, derived from the high-J lines, is not found toward the nucleus but toward the galaxy plane. The thermal structure derived from the 12CO multi-transition analysis suggests that mechanical heating, like shocks or turbulence, dominates the heating of the ISM in the nucleus of NGC4945 located beyond 100 pc (≳5″) from the center of the galaxy. This result is further supported by published models, which are able to reproduce the emission observed at high-J (PACS) 12CO transitions when mechanical heating mechanisms are included. Shocks and/or turbulence are likely produced by the barred potential and the outflow observed in X–
dc.description.sponsorshipWe thank the anonymous referee for useful comments and suggestions which helped us to improve the quality and presentation of the manuscript. E. B. acknowledges the support from Comunidad de Madrid through the Atraccion de Talento grant 2017-T1/TIC-5213. J.M.P. acknowledges partial support by the MINECO and FEDER funding under grant ESP2017-86582-C4-1-R and PID2019-105552RB-C41. M.A.R.T. acknowledges support by the APEX project M-081.F-0034-2008. S.G.B. acknowledges support from the research projects PGC2018-094671-B-I00 (MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE) and PID2019-106027GA-C44 from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion. This work is based on observations acquired with the Herschel Satellite, obtained from the ESA Herschel Science Archive, and with the APEX antenna, obtained from the project M-081.F-0034-2008. This research has made use of: (1) the ESA Herschel Science Archive; (2) the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; With funding from the Spanish government through the "María de Maeztu Unit of Excellence" accreditation (MDM-2017-0737).es
dc.publisherEDP Scienceses
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/AEI/Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2013-2016/ESP2017-86582-C4-1-R/ES/CONTRIBUCION ESPAÑOLA A LAS MISIONES ESPACIALES CRIOGENICAS SPICA Y ATHENA, POST-OPERACIONES DE HERSCHEL Y EXPLOTACION CIENTIFICA MULTIFRECUENCIA/-
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/AEI/Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2017-2020/PID2019-105552RB-C41/ES/CONTRIBUCION DEL CAB A SPICA, DESARROLLO DE INSTRUMENTACION CRIOGENICA Y EXPLOTACION CIENTIFICA MULTILONGITUD DE ONDA/-
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/AEI/Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2017-2020/PID2019-106027GA-C44/ES/LA PERSPECTIVA DE ALMA SOBRE EL CICLO DE GAS EN GALAXIAS ACTIVAS/-
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/AEI/Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2017-2020/PGC2018-094671-B-I00/ES/EVOLUCION DE GALAXIAS Y SUS AGUJEROS NEGROS CON ALTA RESOLUCION ESPACIAL: FEEDBACK, EL TORO Y FORMACION ESTELAR/-
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.subjectISM: moleculeses
dc.subjectInfrared: galaxieses
dc.subjectGalaxies: ISMes
dc.subjectGalaxies: starburstes
dc.subjectGalaxies: kinematics and dynamicses
dc.subjectGalaxies: activees
dc.titleThe multi-phase ISM in the nearby composite AGN-SB galaxy NGC 4945: large-scale (parsecs) mechanical heatinges
dc.contributor.orcidBellocchi, E. [0000-0001-9791-4228]-
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Space Agency (ESA)-
dc.contributor.funderAgencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI)-
dc.contributor.funderComunidad de Madrid-
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer reviewes
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