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Title: Lock-in amplifiers for AMR sensors
Authors: Díaz Michelena, M.
Cobos, P.
Aroca, C.
Keywords: Magnetic Sensors;AMR magnetometers;Fluxgate sensors;Low noise and temperature compensation
Issue Date: 1-Feb-2015
Publisher: Elsevier
DOI: 10.1016/j.sna.2014.11.005
Published version:
Citation: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 222: 149-159(2015)
Abstract: Anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) magnetic sensors are often chosen as the magnetic transducer for magnetic field sensing in applications with low to moderate magnetic field resolution because of the relative low mass of the sensor and their ease of use. They measure magnetic fields in the order of the Earth magnetic field (with typical sensitivities of 1‰/G or 10−2‰/μT), have typical minimum detectable fields in order of nT and even 0.1 nT but they are seriously limited by the thermal drifts due to the variation of the resistivity with temperature (∼2.5‰/°C) and the variation of the magnetoresistive effect with temperature (which affects both the sensitivity of the sensors: ∼2.7‰/°C, and the offset: ±0.5‰/°C). Therefore, for lower magnetic fields, fluxgate vector sensors are generally preferred. In the present work these limitations of AMR sensors are outlined and studied. Three methods based on lock-in amplifiers are proposed as low noise techniques. Their performance has been simulated, experimentally tested and comparatively discussed. The developed model has been also used to derive a technique for temperature compensation of AMR response. The final goal to implement these techniques in a space qualified applied specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for Mars in situ exploration with compact miniaturized magnetometers.
ISSN: 0924-4247
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