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dc.rights.licenseCopyright © 2021, Oxford University Press-
dc.contributor.authorRico Villas, F.-
dc.contributor.authorMartín Pintado, J.-
dc.contributor.authorGonzález Alfonso, E.-
dc.contributor.authorRivilla, V. M.-
dc.contributor.authorMartín, S.-
dc.contributor.authorGarcía Burillo, S.-
dc.contributor.authorJiménez Serra, I.-
dc.contributor.authorSánchez García, M.-
dc.contributor.otherUnidad de Excelencia Científica María de Maeztu Centro de Astrobiología del Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial y CSIC, MDM-2017-0737-
dc.identifier.citationMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 502(2): 3021–3034(2021)es
dc.description.abstractUsing the ALMA data, we have studied the HC3N and continuum emission in the starburst pseudo-ring (SB pseudo-ring) and the circumnuclear disc (CND) of the SB/active galactic nucleus (AGN) composite galaxy NGC 1068. We have detected emission from vibrationally excited HC3N (HC3N*) only towards one star-forming region of the SB pseudo-ring. Remarkably, HC3N* was not detected towards the CND despite its large HC3N v = 0 column density. From local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE modelling of HC3N*, we obtained a dust temperature (Tdust) of ∼250 K and a density (nH2) of 6×105 cm−3 for this star-forming region. The estimated infrared (IR) luminosity of 5.8 × 108 L⊙ is typical of proto-superstar clusters (proto-SSCs) observed in the SB galaxy NGC 253. We use the continuum emissions at 147 and 350 GHz, along with CO and Pa α, to estimate the ages of other 14 SSCs in the SB pseudo-ring. We find the SSCs to be associated with the region connecting the nuclear bar with the SB pseudo-ring, supporting the inflow scenario. For the CND, our analysis yields Tdust ≤ 100 K and nH2∼(3−6)×105 cm−3. The very different dust temperatures found for the CND and the proto-SSC indicate that, while the dust in the proto-SSC is being efficiently heated from the inside by the radiation from massive protostars, the CND is being heated externally by the AGN, which in the IR optically thin case can only heat the dust to 56 K. We discuss the implications of the non-detection of HC3N* near the luminous AGN in NGC 1068 on the interpretation of the HC3N* emission observed in the SB/AGN composite galaxies NGC 4418 and Arp
dc.description.sponsorshipThis paper makes use of the ALMA data listed in Table 1. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. The Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation has supported this research under grant number ESP2017-86582-C4-1-R, PhD fellowship BES-2016-078808, and MDM-2017-0737 Unidad de Excelencia Maria de Maeztu. VMR acknowledges support from the Comunidad de Madrid through the Atraccion de Talento Investigador Senior Grant (COOL: Cosmic Origins Of Life; 2019-T1/TIC-15379), and from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement number 664931. IJS has received partial support from the Spanish European Regional Development Fund (FEDER; project number ESP201786582-C4-1-R) and the State Research Agency (AEI; project number PID2019-105552RB-C41).es
dc.publisherOxford Academics: Oxford University Presses
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/AEI/Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2013-2016/ESP2017-86582-C4-1-R/ES/CONTRIBUCION ESPAÑOLA A LAS MISIONES ESPACIALES CRIOGENICAS SPICA Y ATHENA, POST-OPERACIONES DE HERSCHEL Y EXPLOTACION CIENTIFICA MULTIFRECUENCIA/-
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/AEI/Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2017-2020/PID2019-105552RB-C41/ES/CONTRIBUCION DEL CAB A SPICA, DESARROLLO DE INSTRUMENTACION CRIOGENICA Y EXPLOTACION CIENTIFICA MULTILONGITUD DE ONDA/-
dc.subjectGalaxies: Individual: NGC1068es
dc.subjectGalaxies: ISMes
dc.subjectgalaxies: Seyfertes
dc.subjectgalaxies: Star Clusterses
dc.subjectGalaxies: Star Formationes
dc.titleVibrationally excited HC3N emission in NGC 1068: tracing the recent star formation in the starburst ringes
dc.contributor.orcidRivilla, V. M. [0000-0002-2887-5859]-
dc.contributor.funderAgencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI)-
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Research Council (ERC)-
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