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dc.rights.license© ESO 2020-
dc.contributor.authorBorsa, F.-
dc.contributor.authorAllart, R.-
dc.contributor.authorCasasayas Barris, N.-
dc.contributor.authorTabernero, H. M.-
dc.contributor.authorZapatero Osorio, M. R.-
dc.contributor.authorCristiani, S.-
dc.contributor.authorPepe, F.-
dc.contributor.authorRebolo, R.-
dc.contributor.authorSantos, N. C.-
dc.contributor.authorAdibekyan, V.-
dc.contributor.authorBourrier, V.-
dc.contributor.authorDemangeon, O. D. S.-
dc.contributor.authorEhrenreich, D.-
dc.contributor.authorPallé, E.-
dc.contributor.authorSousa, S. G.-
dc.contributor.authorLillo Box, J.-
dc.contributor.authorLovis, C.-
dc.contributor.authorMicela, G.-
dc.contributor.authorOshagh, M.-
dc.contributor.authorPoretti, E.-
dc.contributor.authorSozzetti, A.-
dc.contributor.authorAllende Prieto, C.-
dc.contributor.authorAlibert, Y.-
dc.contributor.authorAmate, M.-
dc.contributor.authorBenz, W.-
dc.contributor.authorBouchy, F.-
dc.contributor.authorCabral, A.-
dc.contributor.authorDekker, H.-
dc.contributor.authorD´Odorico, V.-
dc.contributor.authorDi Marcoantonio, P.-
dc.contributor.authorFigueira, P.-
dc.contributor.authorGenova Santos, R.-
dc.contributor.authorGonzález Hernández, J. I.-
dc.contributor.authorLo Curto, G.-
dc.contributor.authorManescau, A.-
dc.contributor.authorMartins, C. J. A. P.-
dc.contributor.authorMégevand, D.-
dc.contributor.authorMehner, A.-
dc.contributor.authorMolaro, P.-
dc.contributor.authorNunes, N. J.-
dc.contributor.authorRiva, M.-
dc.contributor.authorSuárez Mascareño, A.-
dc.contributor.authorUdry, S.-
dc.contributor.authorZerbi, Filippo M.-
dc.identifier.citationAstronomy and Astrophysics 645: A24(2021)es
dc.descriptionBased in part on Guaranteed Time Observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programme 1102.C-0744 by the ESPRESSO
dc.description.abstractContext. Ultra-hot Jupiters are excellent laboratories for the study of exoplanetary atmospheres. WASP-121b is one of the most studied; many recent analyses of its atmosphere report interesting features at different wavelength ranges. Aims. In this paper we analyze one transit of WASP-121b acquired with the high-resolution spectrograph ESPRESSO at VLT in one-telescope mode, and one partial transit taken during the commissioning of the instrument in four-telescope mode. Methods. We take advantage of the very high S/N data and of the extreme stability of the spectrograph to investigate the anomalous in-transit radial velocity curve and study the transmission spectrum of the planet. We pay particular attention to the removal of instrumental effects, and stellar and telluric contamination. The transmission spectrum is investigated through single-line absorption and cross-correlation with theoretical model templates. Results. By analyzing the in-transit radial velocities we were able to infer the presence of the atmospheric Rossiter–McLaughlin effect. We measured the height of the planetary atmospheric layer that correlates with the stellar mask (mainly Fe) to be 1.052 ± 0.015 Rp and we also confirmed the blueshift of the planetary atmosphere. By examining the planetary absorption signal on the stellar cross-correlation functions we confirmed the presence of a temporal variation of its blueshift during transit, which could be investigated spectrum-by-spectrum thanks to the quality of our ESPRESSO data. We detected significant absorption in the transmission spectrum for Na, H, K, Li, Ca II, and Mg, and we certified their planetary nature by using the 2D tomographic technique. Particularly remarkable is the detection of Li, with a line contrast of ~0.2% detected at the 6σ level. With the cross-correlation technique we confirmed the presence of Fe I, Fe II, Cr I, and V I. Hα and Ca II are present up to very high altitudes in the atmosphere (~1.44 Rp and ~2 Rp, respectively), and also extend beyond the transit-equivalent Roche lobe radius of the planet. These layers of the atmosphere have a large line broadening that is not compatible with being caused by the tidally locked rotation of the planet alone, and could arise from vertical winds or high-altitude jets in the evaporating
dc.description.sponsorshipWe thank the referee for their useful comments that helped improving the clarity of the manuscript. The authors acknowledge the ESPRESSO project team for its effort and dedication in building the ESPRESSO instrument. FB acknowledges financial support from INAF through the ASI-INAF contract 2015-019-R0, and M. Rainer for helpful discussions on the Fourier transform of the CCF. This work has been carried out within the framework of the National Centre of Competence in Research PlanetS supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation. R.A. acknowledge the financial support of the SNSF. This work was supported by FCT - Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia through national funds and by FEDER through COMPETE2020 Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalizacao by these grants: UID/FIS/04434/2019; UIDB/04434/2020; UIDP/04434/2020; PTDC/FISAST/32113/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113; PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953; PTDC/FIS-AST/28987/2017 & POCI-010145-FEDER-028987. O.D.S.D. is supported in the form of work contract (DL 57/2016/CP1364/CT0004) funded by FCT. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (project Four Aces grant agreement no. 724427). This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral
dc.publisherEDP Scienceses
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.subjectPlanetary systemses
dc.subjectTechniques: spectroscopices
dc.subjectTechniques: radial velocitieses
dc.subjectStars: individual: WASP-121es
dc.subjectPlanets and satellites: atmosphereses
dc.titleAtmospheric Rossiter–McLaughlin effect and transmission spectroscopy of WASP-121b with ESPRESSOes
dc.contributor.orcidCabral, A. [0000-0002-9433-871X]-
dc.contributor.orcidAdibekyan, V. [0000-0002-0601-6199]-
dc.contributor.orcidSantos, N. [0000-0003-4422-2919]-
dc.contributor.orcidNunes, N. [0000-0002-3837-6914]-
dc.contributor.orcidSozzetti, A. [0000-0002-7504-365X]-
dc.contributor.orcidSuarez Mascareño, A. [0000-0002-3814-5323]-
dc.contributor.funderIstituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)-
dc.contributor.funderSwiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)-
dc.contributor.funderFundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (FCT)-
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Research Council (ERC)-
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