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dc.rights.licenseCopyright © 2021, Oxford University Press-
dc.contributor.authorBarnes, A. T.-
dc.contributor.authorHenshaw, J. D.-
dc.contributor.authorFontani, F.-
dc.contributor.authorPineda, J. E.-
dc.contributor.authorCosentino, G.-
dc.contributor.authorTan, J. C.-
dc.contributor.authorCaselli, P.-
dc.contributor.authorJiménez Serra, I.-
dc.contributor.authorLaw, C. Y.-
dc.contributor.authorAvison, A.-
dc.contributor.authorBigiel, F.-
dc.contributor.authorFeng, S.-
dc.contributor.authorKong, S.-
dc.contributor.authorLongmore, S. N.-
dc.contributor.authorMoser, L.-
dc.contributor.authorParker, R. J.-
dc.contributor.authorSánchez Monge, Á.-
dc.contributor.authorWang, K.-
dc.identifier.citationMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 503(3): 4601-4626(2021)es
dc.description.abstractInfrared dark clouds (IRDCs) are potential hosts of the elusive early phases of high mass star formation (HMSF). Here, we conduct an in-depth analysis of the fragmentation properties of a sample of 10 IRDCs, which have been highlighted as some of the best candidates to study HMSF within the Milky Way. To do so, we have obtained a set of large mosaics covering these IRDCs with Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at Band 3 (or 3 mm). These observations have a high angular resolution (∼3 arcsec; ∼0.05 pc), and high continuum and spectral line sensitivity (∼0.15 mJy beam−1 and ∼0.2 K per 0.1 km s−1 channel at the N2H+ (1 − 0) transition). From the dust continuum emission, we identify 96 cores ranging from low to high mass (M = 3.4−50.9 M⊙) that are gravitationally bound (αvir = 0.3−1.3) and which would require magnetic field strengths of B = 0.3−1.0 mG to be in virial equilibrium. We combine these results with a homogenized catalogue of literature cores to recover the hierarchical structure within these clouds over four orders of magnitude in spatial scale (0.01–10 pc). Using supplementary observations at an even higher angular resolution, we find that the smallest fragments (<0.02 pc) within this hierarchy do not currently have the mass and/or the density required to form high-mass stars. None the less, the new ALMA observations presented in this paper have facilitated the identification of 19 (6 quiescent and 13 star-forming) cores that retain >16 M⊙ without further fragmentation. These high-mass cores contain trans-sonic non-thermal motions, are kinematically sub-virial, and require moderate magnetic field strengths for support against collapse. The identification of these potential sites of HMSF represents a key step in allowing us to test the predictions from high-mass star and cluster formation
dc.description.sponsorshipWe would like to thank the referee for their constructive feedback that helped improve the paper. ATB and FB would like to acknowledge funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 726384/Empire). JEP and PC acknowledge the financial support of the Max Planck Society. IJS has received partial support from the Spanish FEDER (project number ESP2017-86582-C4-1-R) and the State Research Agency (AEI; project number PID2019-105552RB-C41). RJP acknowledges support from the Royal Society in the form of a Dorothy Hodgkin Fellowship. ASM research is conducted within the Collaborative Research Centre 956 (sub-project A6), funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG; project ID 184018867). SF acknowledges the support from the EACOA fellowship from the East Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA). KW acknowledges support by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFA0402702, 2019YFA0405100), the National Science Foundation of China (11973013, 11721303), and the starting grant at the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University (7101502287). This paper uses the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2017.1.00687.S and ADS/JAO.ALMA#2018.1.00850.S. We would like to thank Audra Hernandez, Vlas Sokolov, and Andy Pon for their input on the proposal for these AMLA observations. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic ofKorea), in cooperationwith theRepublic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and
dc.publisherOxford Academics: Oxford University Presses
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/AEI/Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2013-2016/ESP2017-86582-C4-1-R/ES/CONTRIBUCION ESPAÑOLA A LAS MISIONES ESPACIALES CRIOGENICAS SPICA Y ATHENA, POST-OPERACIONES DE HERSCHEL Y EXPLOTACION CIENTIFICA MULTIFRECUENCIA/-
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/AEI/Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2017-2020/PID2019-105552RB-C41/ES/CONTRIBUCION DEL CAB A SPICA, DESARROLLO DE INSTRUMENTACION CRIOGENICA Y EXPLOTACION CIENTIFICA MULTILONGITUD DE ONDA/-
dc.titleALMA–IRDC: dense gas mass distribution from cloud to core scaleses
dc.contributor.orcidAvison, A. [0000-0002-2562-8609]-
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Research Council (ERC)-
dc.contributor.funderAgencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI)-
dc.contributor.funderDeutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)-
dc.contributor.funderEast Asia Core Observatories Association (EACOA)-
dc.contributor.funderNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)-
dc.contributor.funderNational Key Research and Development Program of China-
dc.contributor.funderPeking University-
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