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|Title:||Surface Energy Budget, Albedo, and Thermal Inertia at Jezero Crater, Mars, as Observed From the Mars 2020 MEDA Instrument|
|Authors:||Martínez, G. M.|
Vicente Retortillo, Á.
Johnson, J. R.
Mora Sotomayor, L.
Sánchez Lavega, A.
Lemmon, M. T.
Conrad, Pamela G.
Newman, C. E.
De la Torre Juarez, M.
Tamppari, L. K.
Mcconnochie, T. H.
Zorzano, M. P.
Prieto Ballesteros, O.
Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.
|Publisher:||AGU Advancing Earth and Space Science|
|Citation:||Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 128(2): e2022JE007537(2023)|
|Abstract:||The Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA) on board Perseverance includes first-of-its-kind sensors measuring the incident and reflected solar flux, the downwelling atmospheric IR flux, and the upwelling IR flux emitted by the surface. We use these measurements for the first 350 sols of the Mars 2020 mission (Ls ∼ 6°–174° in Martian Year 36) to determine the surface radiative budget on Mars and to calculate the broadband albedo (0.3–3 μm) as a function of the illumination and viewing geometry. Together with MEDA measurements of ground temperature, we calculate the thermal inertia for homogeneous terrains without the need for numerical thermal models. We found that (a) the observed downwelling atmospheric IR flux is significantly lower than the model predictions. This is likely caused by the strong diurnal variation in aerosol opacity measured by MEDA, which is not accounted for by numerical models. (b) The albedo presents a marked non-Lambertian behavior, with lowest values near noon and highest values corresponding to low phase angles (i.e., Sun behind the observer). (c) Thermal inertia values ranged between 180 (sand dune) and 605 (bedrock-dominated material) SI units. (d) Averages of albedo and thermal inertia (spatial resolution of ∼3–4 m2) along Perseverance's traverse are in very good agreement with collocated retrievals of thermal inertia from Thermal Emission Imaging System (spatial resolution of 100 m per pixel) and of bolometric albedo in the 0.25–2.9 μm range from (spatial resolution of ∼300 km2). The results presented here are important to validate model predictions and provide ground-truth to orbital measurements.|
|Description:||Data Availability Statement All Mars 2020 MEDA data necessary to reproduce each figure shown in this manuscript are available via the Planetary Data System (PDS) Atmospheres node (Rodriguez-Manfredi & de la Torre Juarez, 2021). An exception to this are the LWd values in the 5–80 μm range (Figures 8, 9, and 10 top, Figure 11 top, and Figure 15), and the aerosol opacity values derived from TIRS (Figure 10, middle and Figure 11, top), which are publicly available via the USRA Houston Repository (Martinez et al., 2022). THEMIS retrievals of thermal inertia shown in Figure 7 and TES retrievals of albedo in Figure 14 can be queried and processed using the open-source JMARS (Christensen et al., 2009) and MARSTHERM (Putzig et al., 2013) software.|
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