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Title: A Multiplex Immunosensor for Detecting Perchlorate-Reducing Bacteria for Environmental Monitoring and Planetary Exploration
Authors: Gallardo Carreño, Ignacio
Moreno Paz, M.
Aguirre, Jacobo
Blanco, Yolanda
Alonso Pintado, Eduardo
Raymond Bouchard, Isabelle
Maggiori, Catherine
Rivas, Luis A.
Engelbrektson, Anna
Whyte, Lyle
Parro García, V.
Keywords: Perchlorate;Perchlorate-Reducing Bacteria;Antibody Microarrays;Biochip;Life Detection;Planetary Exploration;Mars;Graph Theory
Issue Date: 16-Dec-2020
Publisher: Extreme Microbiology
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.590736
Published version:
Citation: Frontiers in Microbilogy 11: 590736 (2020)
Abstract: Perchlorate anions are produced by chemical industries and are important contaminants in certain natural ecosystems. Perchlorate also occurs in some natural and uncontaminated environments such as the Atacama Desert, the high Arctic or the Antarctic Dry Valleys, and is especially abundant on the surface of Mars. As some bacterial strains are capable of using perchlorate as an electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions, their detection is relevant for environmental monitoring on Earth as well as for the search for life on Mars. We have developed an antibody microarray with 20 polyclonal antibodies to detect perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB) strains and two crucial and highly conserved enzymes involved in perchlorate respiration: perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase. We determined the cross-reactivity, the working concentration, and the limit of detection of each antibody individually and in a multiplex format by Fluorescent Sandwich Microarray Immunoassay. Although most of them exhibited relatively high sensitivity and specificity, we applied a deconvolution method based on graph theory to discriminate between specific signals and cross-reactions from related microorganisms. We validated the system by analyzing multiple bacterial isolates, crude extracts from contaminated reactors and salt-rich natural samples from the high Arctic. The PRB detecting chip (PRBCHIP) allowed us to detect and classify environmental isolates as well as to detect similar strains by using crude extracts obtained from 0.5 g even from soils with low organic-matter levels (<103 cells/g of soil). Our results demonstrated that PRBCHIP is a valuable tool for sensitive and reliable detection of perchlorate-reducing bacteria for research purposes, environmental monitoring and planetary exploration.
E-ISSN: 1664-302X
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