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dc.rights.license© ESO 2020-
dc.contributor.authorAllart, R.-
dc.contributor.authorPino, L.-
dc.contributor.authorLovis, C.-
dc.contributor.authorSousa, S. G.-
dc.contributor.authorCasasayas Barris, N.-
dc.contributor.authorZapatero Osorio, M. R.-
dc.contributor.authorCretignier, M.-
dc.contributor.authorPallé, E.-
dc.contributor.authorPepe, F.-
dc.contributor.authorCristiani, S.-
dc.contributor.authorRebolo, R.-
dc.contributor.authorSantos, N. C.-
dc.contributor.authorBorsa, F.-
dc.contributor.authorBourrier, V.-
dc.contributor.authorDemangeon, O. D. S.-
dc.contributor.authorEhrenreich, D.-
dc.contributor.authorLavie, B.-
dc.contributor.authorLendl, M.-
dc.contributor.authorLillo Box, J.-
dc.contributor.authorMicela, G.-
dc.contributor.authorOshagh, M.-
dc.contributor.authorSozzetti, A.-
dc.contributor.authorTabernero, H.-
dc.contributor.authorAdibekyan, V.-
dc.contributor.authorAllende Prieto, C.-
dc.contributor.authorAlibert, Y.-
dc.contributor.authorAmate, M.-
dc.contributor.authorBenz, W.-
dc.contributor.authorBouchy, F.-
dc.contributor.authorCabral, A.-
dc.contributor.authorDekker, H.-
dc.contributor.authorD´Odorico, V.-
dc.contributor.authorDi Marcantonio, P.-
dc.contributor.authorDumusque, X.-
dc.contributor.authorFigueira, P.-
dc.contributor.authorGenova Santos, R.-
dc.contributor.authorGonzález Hernández, J. I.-
dc.contributor.authorLo Curto, G.-
dc.contributor.authorManescau, A.-
dc.contributor.authorMartins, C. J. A. P.-
dc.contributor.authorMégevand, D.-
dc.contributor.authorMehner, A.-
dc.contributor.authorMolaro, P.-
dc.contributor.authorNunes, N. J.-
dc.contributor.authorPoretti, E.-
dc.contributor.authorRiva, M.-
dc.contributor.authorSuárez Mascareño, A.-
dc.contributor.authorUdry, S.-
dc.contributor.authorZerbi, Filippo M.-
dc.identifier.citationAstronomy and Astrophysics 644: A155 (2020)es
dc.description.abstractContext. The study of exoplanet atmospheres is essential for understanding the formation, evolution, and composition of exoplanets. The transmission spectroscopy technique is playing a significant role in this domain. In particular, the combination of state-of-the-art spectrographs at low- and high-spectral resolution is key to our understanding of atmospheric structure and composition. Aims. We observed two transits of the close-in sub-Saturn-mass planet, WASP-127b, with ESPRESSO in the frame of the Guaranteed Time Observations Consortium. We aim to use these transit observations to study the system architecture and the exoplanet atmosphere simultaneously. Methods. We used the Reloaded Rossiter-McLaughlin technique to measure the projected obliquity lambda and the projected rotational velocity nu(eq).sin(i(*)). We extracted the high-resolution transmission spectrum of the planet to study atomic lines. We also proposed a new cross-correlation framework to search for molecular species and we applied it to water vapor. Results. The planet is orbiting its slowly rotating host star (nu(eq).sin(i(*)) = 0.53(-0.05)(+0.07) km s(-1)) on a retrograde misaligned orbit (lambda = -128.41(+5.60)degrees(-5.46)). We detected the sodium line core at the 9-sigma confidence level with an excess absorption of 0.34 +/- 0.04%, a blueshift of 2.74 +/- 0.79 km s(-1), and a full width at half maximum of 15.18 +/- 1.75 km s(-1). However, we did not detect the presence of other atomic species but set upper limits of only a few scale heights. Finally, we put a 3-sigma upper limit on the average depth of the 1600 strongest water lines at equilibrium temperature in the visible band of 38 ppm. This constrains the cloud-deck pressure between 0.3 and 0.5 mbar by combining our data with low-resolution data in the near-infrared and models computed for this planet. Conclusions. WASP-127b, with an age of about 10 Gyr, is an unexpected exoplanet by its orbital architecture but also by the small extension of its sodium atmosphere (similar to 7 scale heights). ESPRESSO allows us to take a step forward in the detection of weak signals, thus bringing strong constraints on the presence of clouds in exoplanet atmospheres. The framework proposed in this work can be applied to search for molecular species and study cloud-decks in other
dc.description.sponsorshipWe thank the referee for their careful reading and their inputs. The authors acknowledge the ESPRESSO project team for its effort and dedication in building the ESPRESSO instrument. We thank Jessica Spake for the discussion on the HST datasets and important insight. We thank Monika Lendl and Julia Seidel for their important feedback and discussions on the EulerCam and HARPS data. We acknowledge the Geneva exoplanet atmosphere group for fruitful discussions. This work has been carried out within the frame of the National Centre for Competence in Research’ PlanetS’ supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF). The authors acknowledge the financial support of the SNSF. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 679633: Exo-Atmos). This work was supported by FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia through national funds and by FEDER through COMPETE2020 – Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalização by these grants: UID/FIS/04434/2019; UIDB/04434/2020; UIDP/04434/2020; PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113; PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953; PTDC/FIS-AST/28987/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028987 & PTDC/FIS-OUT/29048/2017 & IF/00852/2015. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (project Four Aces grant agreement No 724427). O.D.S.D. is supported by by national funds through Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) in the form of a work contract (DL 57/2016/CP1364/CT0004) and project related funds (EPIC: PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953). The INAF authors acknowledge financial support of the Italian Ministry of Education, University, and Research with PRIN 201278X4FL and the “Progetti Premiali” funding scheme. V.A. acknowledges the support from FCT through Investigador FCT contract nr. IF/00650/2015/CP1273/CT0001. This work has made use ofdata from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, https://www.cosmos. Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral
dc.publisherEDP Scienceses
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationales
dc.titleWASP-127b: a misaligned planet with a partly cloudy atmosphere and tenuous sodium signature seen by ESPRESSOes
dc.contributor.funderSwiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)-
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Research Council (ERC)-
dc.contributor.funderFundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (FCT)-
dc.contributor.funderIstituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)-
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer reviewes
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